Publications. Those noted here are those in THE HUXLEY FILE. For all of T. H. H. publications, see Bibliography 1: THH Publications

Commentary. Most selections in The Huxley File of Victorian commentators on THH. For all commentaries in The Huxley File, see Commentary Index. For an inventory of Victorian commentary on THH, see Bibliography 2: Victorian Commentary. For an inventory of 20th-Century commentary, see Bibliography 3: 20th Century Commentary.

Symbol key


Date Events & appointments Publications in      THE HUXLEY FILE      Lectures and honorary degress Commentary
May 5
T. H. H. born      


    lectures to house maids  



1833 Ealing school      
. . .        
1840   Thoughts and Doings (posthumous)    
1841 Med. apprentice
ship - Rotherhithe
1842 Charing Cross Hospital;
Botany medal
1843 Prizes: Anatomy
1845 MB - London University Structure in the Human Hair Sheath.    


Dec. 3

Member,B.A.A.S Lieutenant, Navy
Assistant Surgeon

Rattlesnake departure

"Noon" (Positions of Rattlesnake) x    
1847 Sydney - Henrietta Heathorn Corpuscles of the Blood of Amphioxus Lanceolatus    
1849   "Anatomy and Affinities of Medusa"    

Oct. 23


Rattlesnake return

Description of the Animal of Trigonia

Notes on Medusæ and Polypes

1851 Fellow, R. S.
Red Lion club
Zoological Notes and Observations Made on Board H.M.S. Rattlesnake during the Years 1846-50.

Observations on the Genus Sagitta

Identity of Structure of Plants and Animals.

1852 R. S. gold medal Upon Animal Individuality Royal Institution lectures
(to 1883)
1853 Appointed Lecturer
School of Mines
"Morphology of Cephalous Mollusca"

The Cell Theory.

Valuation of Evidence

1854   Common Plan of Animal Forms

"Science at Sea"

The Cell Theory

Educational Value of the Natural History Sciences

Present State of Knowledge as to the Structure and Functions of Nerve.

Professor Edward Forbes, F.R.S.

Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation

Schamyl, the Prophet-Warrior of the Caucasus

Martineau, Murchison, Hooker, Brewster

Department of Science and Art

London Institution

1855 m. Henrietta Heathorn

Waverley Place

Fullerian Prof. to R. I.

Philosophical Club of R. S.

Progressive Development of Animal Life in Time

Newton, Carpenter, Hunt, Kingsley, Faraday

1856 Alps with Henrietta and Tyndall

Fellow, Zoo.Soc.

Geo. Soc

Examiner, Univ. London.

Method of Palæontology

Natural History of Knowledge, Discipline, and Power

Dept. of Science and Art Edinburgh Philosophical Inst. Falconer: Huxley's attempted refutation of Cuvier
1857 Alps with Tyndall

Fisheries Comm.

Structure and Functions of Nerve

"Structure and Motion of Glaciers"

Letter to Mr. Tyndall on the Structure of Glacier Ice

Honorary membership, Breslau Imperial Acad.; Dresden Imperial Acad.; Glessen Microscopical Society  

Member, Athenaeum

Fellow, Linnean Society

"The Clouds"

"Chalk, Ancient and Modern"

"Glaciers and Glacial Theory"

Croonian lectures

Hon., Germany Imperial Literary and Scientific Acad.


Secr. Geological Society (to 1862)

The Oceanic Hydrozoa.

On the Persistent Types of Animal Life

The Darwinian Hypothesis

Time and Life: Mr. Darwin's "Origin of Species".

Science and Religion

Theory of the Vertebrate Skull

Amphibian and Reptilian Remains

"Structure of Glaciers"

"The Theory of Glaciers"


Natural History and Archeological Society

Hon. Dublin Univ. Zoological and Botanical Soc; Philadelphia Acad. of Sciences


June - Oxford debatae

Ed., Natural History Review

Species and Races, and Their Origin

Structure of the Mouth and Pharynx of the Scorpion

A Lobster; or, the Study of Zoology

The Origin of Species

"The Glaciers of the Alps"

Hon. Imperial Geological Society of Vienna
1861 Marylebone

V. P., Zoological Society

"Zoological Relations of Man with Lower Animal"

On the Brain of Ateles Paniscus

Man and the Apes(letter)

Teachers Course,South Kensington

Hon. Institute Egyptien of Alexandria

Hon. MA and PhD, Breslau


Owen: Gorilla and the Negro

Timbs: Natural History Zoology

Kingsley: Lord Dundreary

1862 Switzerland

Member, Royal College of Surgeons

Formed Thorough Club

Hunterian Prof.

Geological Contemporaneity and Persistent Types of Life

The Brain of Man and Apes(letter)

Fossil Remains of Man

Geological Soc.

Edinburgh Philosophical Institute

Hon. Odontological Soc.

Imperial Scientific Society of Gottingen"

The Philosophical Institution and Professor Huxley

Origin and Kindred of Man

Owen: Gorilla, Contrasted with Man



Fellow, Ethnological Soc

Royal Comm. on Sea Fisheries (to 1865)

Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature

Letter on the Human Remains Found in the Shell-Mounds.

"Natural History of the Man-Like Apes"

"Relations of Man to the Lower Animals"

On Our Knowledge of the Causes of the Phenomena of Organic Nature

Hull R. I.

Hon. Royal Literary and Scientific Academy of Bavaria

Kingsley: The Water Babies


Blake: Relations of Man, Man's Place

"The Gorilla's Dilemma"

Pycroft: Sad Case

New Publications (NY Times)

Athenaeum on Man's Place

1864 Formed X Club

Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy

Hunterian Lectures on The Structure and Classification of the Mammalia

Human Remains from the Neanderthal

Criticisms on "The Origin of Species"

The Negro's Place in Nature

Science and "Church Policy"

Hon. Imperial Academy of Science of St. Petersburg Taylor: Huxley on the Negro Question.

Governor, Internatlional College

On the Methods and Results of Ethnology

Emancipation–Black and White

Hon. Odontographical Soc. of Philadelphia

Imperial Zoological and Botanical Soc. of Vienna

Royal Scientific Acad. of Prussia

"Cambridge Duet"

James: Huxley's Comparative Anatomy

1866 Member, Jamaica Comm.

Comm. on Royal College of Science for Ireland

Pres., Section D of BAAS

Lessons in Elementary Physiology

Advisableness of Improving Natural Knowledge.

Notes on the Human Remains

Address to St. Mary's Hospital

Jamaica Committee(letter)

St. Martin’s Hall Sunday lectures

Nottingham Working Men

Hon. Swedish Medical Society; Hon. LLD - Edinburgh

1867 To Brittany with Lubbock and Hooker On Two Widely Contrasted Forms of the Human Cranium Sion College

Birmingham and Midland Institute

Hon. Imperial Soc. of Cherbourg: Internatl. Congress of Anthro-pology and Pre-historic Archaeology

Reddie: Geological Chronology

"A Good Example"

Green: Science and the Clergy

1868 Principal, South London Working Men’s College (to 1871)

Pres., Ethno-logical Soc. (to 1871)

Comm. on Science and Art Instruction in Ireland

Piece of Chalk.

A Liberal Education and Where to Find It

"Animals Which Are Most Nearly Intermediate between Birds and Reptiles"

Remarks upon Archæopteryx Lithographica

Scheme for a Museum

Organisms Living at Great Depths

Physical Basis of Life

Classification of Birds (letter)

Lectures to Norwich Working Men

Soc. of Arts Conference

Birmingham and Midland Institute; Newcastle;


Hon. Royal Medico-Chirurgical Soc.; Jena Medical Natural History Soc.

Hutton: Hidden Chess Player
1869 coined ‘agnostic"

Pres. Geological Soc.(to 1871)

Member, Metaphysical Soc.

An Introduction to the Classification of Animals

Aphorisms by Goethe

"Principles and Methods of Paleontology"

Ethnology and Archæology of India

Ethnology and Archæology of North America

Scientific Aspects of Positivism

Scientific Education

Genealogy of Animals

Geological Reform

Editor's Preface Strong Drink and Tobacco Smoke

Pres. Add. Geol. Soc.

Lectures to London schoolchildren, London women, Liverpool Philomathic Soc., Bradford Philosophical Soc.;

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Soc.

Hon. American Philosophical Soc.; Berlin Geological Soc., Institut deFrance

Congreve: Huxley on Comte

"Exeter Change"

Huxley on the Physical Basis of Life

"Mathematics vs. Geology"

Huxley on Geography

Tait: Geological Time

Natural History of Creation [review]

1870 Elected to London School Board

Royal Comm. on Contagious Diseases Acts (to 1871)

Royal Comm. on Scientific Education (to 1875)

Governor, Owens Coll.(to 1875)

Pres. BAAS

Fellow, Anthrop. Inst.

Biogenesis and Abiogenesis

The Deep-Sea Soundings and Geology(letter)

Dr. Bastian and Spontaneous Generation (letter)

Life in the Deep Sea(letter)

Professor Huxley on Celts and Teutons ;(letter)

Kant's View of Space (letter)

Rotherhithe (posthumous)

Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind

Descartes' Discourse

Medical Education

School Boards School Board Address

"Anniverary Addr. of the President of the Ethnological Society"

Ethnology of Britain

Forefathers of the English People

Progress of Palæontology

Palæontology and the Doctrine of Evolution

Classification of Dinosauria

"Relations of Penicillium, Torula, and Bacterium"

Further Evidence of the Affinity between the Dinosaurian Reptiles and Birds

Has a Frog a Soul? (posthumous)

Some Fixed Points in British Ethnology

Views of Hume, Kant, and Whately of the Immortality of the Soul (posthumous)

Univ. Coll. London Medical School Manchester Working Men, Leicester Literary and Philosophical Soc., Birmingham and Midland Institute; Leeds Literary and Philosophical Soc., Bradford Phil. Soc., Cambridge YMCA

BAAS, Liverpool

Hon. Liverpool Lit. & Phil. Soc.; Moscow Im perial Natl. His. Soc.; German Fisheries Fellow ship

"Review of Lay Sermons"

Devonshire Man

Hutton: Pope Huxley, Huxley as Machine, Huxley on Denominationalism

Lingle: Liverpool Address

Professor Huxley on Political Ethnology

Huxley on Tobacco Smoking

1871 Secr. Royal Society (to 1880) Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals

Mr. Darwin's Critics

Formation of Coal

Bishop Berkeley on the Metaphysics of Sensation

Administrative Nihilism

On Coral and Coral Reefs

Address to the Royal Academy 1871

Duties of the State

Manchester Working Men, Birmingham and Midland Institute, Liverpool Trades Council

Hon. Cambridge Phil. Soc.; Berlin Soc. of Anthropology, Ethnology and Pre-history

Report on Spiritualism

Christie: Saturday Review and Huxley

Inventor of Protoplasm

Timbs: Professor Huxley, F.R.S.

Hutton: Academy Dinner, Charities of London

Haeckel: Scientific Worthies

Huxley on Medical Education

Saturday Review and Professor Huxley

1872 Elected Rector of Aberdeen (to 1874)

Visits Egypt and Italy

Moved to Marlborough House

Yeast South Kensington Teachers’ Course

Hon. Manchester Literary and Phil. Soc., Italian Soc. of Anthropology and Ethnology, New Zealand Instiitue

Jenkins: Professor Foxley
1873   Forbes and Tyndall (letter)

The Problems of the Deep Sea

Swenden Order of the Pole Star; Hon. Medical Soc.; Buffalo Soc. of Natural Sciences Waddy: Cartoon Portrait

On the Medical Curriculum

1874 Seance exposure Hypothesis that Animals are Automata

"Classification of the Animal Kingdom"

Joseph Priestley

Universities: Actual and Ideal

Miss Jex Blake (letter)

Resemblances and Differences in the Brain in Man and the Apes.

Recent Work of the 'Challenger' Expedition

B.A.A.S. Belfast

Aberdeen Address

Owens College Medical School


Hon. Royal Irish Acad.; Royal Swedish Acad. of Sciences; Lisbon Royal Acad. of Sciences; Belgian Acad. of Sciences

Wanted: The Philosopher

British Automata; Or, Hopelessly Unconscious

Dogmatists on Dogma

"Fine Old Atom Molecule"

at Aberdeen

1875 Visiting Professor at Edinburgh (and 1876)

Vivisection controversy

Brain and Skull of Amphioxus Lanceolatus

Elementary Instruction in Practical Biology (w/H.N. Martin)

Results of the Expedition of H.M.S. "Challenger"

Notes from the "Challenger"

Origin of Existing Vertebrate Animals

Hon. Historical Soc. of Lancashire and Cheshire Protoplasm, Powheads, and Porwiggles
1876 U. S. visit

Roy. Comm. on Vivisection

Roy. Comm. on Universities of Scotland (to 1878)

Vice-Pres. of Working Men’s Club and Institute


Wollston Medal of Geol. Soc.

Lectures on Evolution

Study of Biology

Address on University Education

Dinner to the "Challenger" Staff

Border between Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms

Evidence of the Miracle of the Resurrection

Address to the Royal Academy 1876

Vivisection Bill (letter)

London Institute

Glasgow Science Assoc.

Hon. Literary and Antiquarian Soc. of Perth;

Royal Soc. of Edinburgh

Glasgow Philosophical Soc.; Royal Soc. of Copenhagen; N. Y. Acad. of Sciences

Impressions of America

Pedigree of the Horse

Huxley Ikonoklastes

Huxley on the Physical Basis of Life

Science and Religion Once More

Professor Protoplasm

Huxley's Lectures

1877   Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals


Study of Biology

Toast to Darwin

Elementary Education in Physiology

Technical Education

Influence upon Morality of a Decline in Religious Belief

The Soul and Future Life

Number of Species of Insects (letter)

Zoological Gardens

Birmingham Domestic Economy Congress

Hon. Boston Soc. of Natl. History; Dutch Acad. of Sciences; Belgian Geological Soc.

"T.H.H. - Robert Buchanan"

The British Association

Hutton: Technical Education

1878 Pres., Queckett

Microscopical Club (to 1879)

A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals


William Harvey

Britannica: Amphibia, Animal Kingdom, Biology, Evolution in Biology

Address to the Anthropological Dep. of the British Association

"Pres. Addr. to Quekett

Microscopical Club"

Roy. Coll. Physicians

Whitechapel (re. univ. extension)

Hon. LLD - Dublin;

Academia de’ Lincel of Rome; Brussels Roy. Medical & Scientific Soc.

Judd: Huxley's Physiography
1879 Governor of Eton (to 1888) Crayfish

Preface to Haeckel’s

Freedom in Science and Teaching

Characters of the Pelvis in the Mammalia

Sensation and Sensiferous Organs

"Pres. Addr. to Quekett Microscopical Club"

Report to BAAS

Hon. LL. D. (Cambridge)

Acad. of Letters of Pernambuco

Roy. Soc. of New South Wales

Natl. Science Soc. of Halle

Roy. Belgium Acad. of Medicine

Institut de France

Veitch: Prof. Huxley's Hume

Huxley on Technical Education

1880 Clarke Medal of Roy. Soc. of New South Wales Introductory Science Primer

Epipubis in the Dog and Fox

The Coming of Age of "The Origin of Species"

Science and Culture

Method of Zadig

Application of the Laws of Evolution to the Arrangement of the Vertebrata

First Volume of the Publications of the "Challenger"

con’t - Roy. Inst., Zoological Gardens, Working Men’s Coll.

Birmingham (Mason Coll.)

Hon. Roy. Natl. History Soc. of Netherlands Indies

1881 Dean of Normal School of Science (to 1894)

Inspector of Salmon Fisheries (to 1885)

Roy. Comm. on Medical Acts (to 1882)

Pres., Sanitary Protection Assoc.

The Connection of the Biological Sciences with Medicine

The Rise and Progress of Palæontology

International Medical Congress

B.A.A.A. York

Norwich Fisheries Exhibition

Huxley on Evolution
1882   Charles Darwin

A Glimpse through the Corridors of Time (letter)

London Women’s Medical School

Hon. Wurzburg MD; Physiological Soc.; Clarendon Historical Soc. of Edinburgh

Extract from a Journal

Arnold: Literature and Science

1883 Pres. Royal Soc. (to 1886)

Fellow, Roy. Coll. of Surgeons

Ex officio Trustee of British Museum (to 1886)

Rede Lecturer at Cambridge

Science and Art in Relation to Education

Presidential Address to the Royal Society 1883

Address at the Fisheries Exhibition

The Rede Lecture

Unwritten History

Good Writing: a gift or an art? (n.d.)

Literary Style (n.d.)

Clothworkers Hall

Mansion House

London Fisheries Exhibition

Cambridge (Rede)

Liverpool Institute School

Hon. Hertfordshire Natl. History Soc.; National Acad. of Sciences of USA; American Acad. of Arts & Sciences; Anthro-pology Soc. of Washin-gton; Academia Valdarnense of Florence

Beckett: Hume and Huxley on Miracles

Finsbury Prizes

Address to Salters' Company

Huxley on Education

1884 THH to Italy

Roy. Comm. on Trawl ... Fishing

VP, Society of Authors

Resigned as Pres. of National Assoc. of Science Teachers

The State and the Medical Profession

Agnosticism: A Symposium

Cock-Lane and Common Sense (letter)

Parasites in Mackerel (letter)

London Hospital Medical School

Hon. Brussels Anthropology Soc.

1885 Resigned Prof. at Normal School of Science The Interpreters of Genesis and the Interpreters of Nature

The Darwin Memorial

Presidential Address to the Royal Society

Altr' arno, Florence (poem)

Marine Biological Assoc

Hon. DCL (Oxford); Geological Soc. of Australasia; Florence Roy. Institute of Higher Study

Gladstone: Dawn of Creation

Hutton: Metaphysical Society

1886 To Switzerland Mr. Gladstone and Genesis


The Evolution of Theology

Epopt and Perfect

Address for British Museum - Darwin Memorial Statue

Hon. Roy. Coll. of Surgeons of Ireland; Modena Natl. History Soc.

Lilly: Materialism and Morality

Gladstone: Proem to Genesis

Hutton: Evolution of Theology


Scientific and Pseudo-Scientific Realism

Science and Pseudo-Science

Progress of Science

Reception of the Origin of Species

Address on Technical Education

Bishop Wilberforce and Professor Huxley (letter)

An Episcopal Trilogy

The Imperial Institute (letter)

An Olive Branch from America

For Merit (posthumous)

From Shanklin (poem)

From the Hut to the Pantheon

Science and Art and Literature

British Race Types

Organization of Industrial Education (letter)

Mansion House (re. Imperial Institute)

St. Marylebone (re free library)

Manchester (re technical education)

Argyll: Canon Liddon, Science Falsely, A Great Lesson

Geological Society

Scientific Federation

1888 Pres., Interna-tional Geological Congress

Trustee British Museum (to 1895)

Copley Medal of Royal Soc.

The Struggle for Existence in Human Society

Obituary: Charles Robert Darwin.


Argyll's Charges against Men of Science (letter)

How to Become an Orator

The Natural History of Christianity (posthumous)

Hon. MD - Bologna Poulton: Elementary Instruction in Practical Biology

Moved to Eastbourne

Spiritualism Unmasked (letter)

Professor Huxley and the Spiritualists (letter)

Value of Witness to the Miraculous


Agnosticism: A Rejoinder

Agnosticism and Christianity

Prologue to Essays on Some Controverted Questions.

Prof. Huxley and M. Pasteur on Hydrophobia (letter)

  Magee: Agnosticism

Mallock: Cowardly Agnosticism

Wace: Agnosticism


Gerbett: Huxley and the Spiritualists (letter)

Hutton: Agnosticism

Huxley and Pasteur on Hydrophobia

1890 Trip to Canaries

Lillean Medal

Pres., Palaeonto-logical Society (to 1895)

Lights of the Church and the Light of Science

The Keepers of the Herd of Swine

Aryan Question and Pre-Historic Man

Government: Anarchy or Regimentation

On the Natural Inequality of Men

Natural Rights and Political Rights

Capital–The Mother of Labour

Are Men Born Free and Equal? (letter)

Darkest England Scheme


On Illusions (letter)

  Christie (Pastrycook): A Working Man's Reply to Professor Huxley

Spencer: Absolute Political Ethics

Magee: Explanation to Huxley

Buchanan: Are Men Born Free and Equal?

Medical Education (letter)

1891   Social Diseases and Worse Remedies (letter)

Hasisadra's Adventure

Introduction to Felix Rocquain's Revolutionary Spirit

Bus Strike (letter)

Agriculture (letter)

University Education (letter)

Last Will and Testament (posthumous)

  Argyll: Huxley on the Warpath, Huxley and Argyll


"Reply on Strike"

1892 Privy Counillor An Apologetic Irenicon

Possibilities and Impossibilities

To Tennyson (poem)

The Bible and Modern Criticism (letter)

The Royal School of Mines (letter)

Science and the State (letter)

University of London (posthumous)

Hon. Frankfurt Natl. History Soc.; Royal Acad. of Science of Amsterdam;

Italian Soc. of Science in Naples

Blathwayt: Uses of Sentiment

Balfour: Foundations of Belief

The Bible and Modern Criticism.

1893 Hayden Medal (Philadelphia) Bible Reading (letter)

Two Statements (letter)

Evolution and Ethics: Prolegomena

Evolution and Ethics

Collected Essays and prefaces I-IV, I: Method and Results, II: Darwiniana, III: Science and Education, IV: Science and Hebrew Tradition

Sea-Serpent (letter)

Romanes lecture - Oxford

Cambridge (Harvey celebration)

Hon. Acad.of Science at Bologna; Hon. MD (Erlangen)

The Romanes Lecture

Seth: Man's Place in the Cosmos

Stephen: Ethics and the Struggle for Existence


Huxley Speaks Out

1894 Royal Soc. Darfwin Medal Past and Present

Owen's Position in the History of Anatomical Science

Professor Tyndall

"Scientist" (letter)

Prolegomena to Evolution and Ethics

Collected Essays and prefaces V-IX, V: Science and Christian Tradition, VI: Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley, VII: Man's Place in Nature, VIII: Discourses, Biological and Geological, IX: Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays.


1895+ Accounts by Flower, Forbes Foster, more Foster, Freemantle, Gladstone Green, Hooker, Howes, Mivart, Osborn, Parker, Sidgwick, Skelton, Vernon-Harcourt, Walpole,Ward

"Prof. H.’s Will"

"The Death of Mr. Huxley"


June 29

T. H. H. d.

Palæontology at the Royal School of Mines

Mr. Balfour's Attack on Agnosticism 1 & 2 (posthumous)

  Hutton: Huxley's Creed, Review of Collected Essays, The Great Agnostic



1.   THH Publications
2.   Victorian Commentary
3.   20th Century Commentary

1.   Letter Index
2.   Illustration Index

Gratitude and Permissions

C. Blinderman & D. Joyce
Clark University

§ 1. THH: His Mark
§ 2. Voyage of the Rattlesnake
§ 3. A Sort of Firm
§ 4. Darwin's Bulldog
§ 5. Hidden Bond: Evolution
§ 6. Frankensteinosaurus
§ 7. Bobbing Angels: Human Evolution
§ 8. Matter of Life: Protoplasm
§ 9. Medusa
§ 10. Liberal Education
§ 11. Scientific Education
§ 12. Unity in Diversity
§ 13. Agnosticism
§ 14. New Reformation
§ 15. Verbal Delusions: The Bible
§ 16. Miltonic Hypothesis: Genesis
§ 17. Extremely Wonderful Events: Resurrection and Demons
§ 18. Emancipation: Gender and Race
§ 19. Aryans et al.: Ethnology
§ 20. The Good of Mankind
§ 21.  Jungle Versus Garden